Bayesian Latent Factor Model for Higher-order Data

Zerui Tao (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)*; Xuyang ZHAO (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology); Toshihisa Tanaka (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology); Qibin Zhao (RIKEN AIP)


Latent factor models are canonical tools to learn low-dimensional and linear embedding of original data. Traditional latent factor models are based on low-rank matrix factorization of covariance matrices. However, for higher-order data with multiple modes, i.e., tensors, this simple treatment fails to take into account the mode-specific relations. This ignorance leads to inefficiency in analysis of complex structures as well as poor data compression ability. In this paper, unlike covariance matrices, we investigate high-order covariance tensor directly by exploiting tensor ring (TR) format and propose the Bayesian TR latent factor model, which can represent complex multi-linear correlations and achieves efficient data compression. To overcome the difficulty of finding the optimal TR-ranks and simultaneously imposing sparsity on loading coefficients, a multiplicative Gamma process (MGP) prior is adopted to automatically infer the ranks and obtain sparsity. Then, we establish efficient parameter-expanded EM algorithm to learn the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of model parameters. Finally, we evaluate our model on covariance estimation, latent factor learning and image inpainting problems.